If a city’s raison d’etre is to make life better — Hyderabad is one of its kind.  Hyderabad sits nestled amongst one of the oldest rock systems of the world. Hyderabad is the daughter of Golconda Fort which was built during Kakatiya rule — after the fall of the Kakatiya dynasty and a series of events Golconda Fort fell into the hands of Persians — Qutb Shahi dynasty. When Golconda Fort became congested with people teeming and hygiene could not be maintained, Quli passed a decree ordering the establishment of a new city which should be a replica of heaven on earth and unequalled in the world. Then, on an auspicious day when the moon was in the constellation of Leo and Jupiter was in its own mansion, a city is born — Hyderabad.  Since then Hyderabad has attracted people from all over the world for a variety of reasons. Its climate, its cosmopolitanism, its growth  — Hyderabad a biography is living relic of the city, starting with the period prior to the city’s birth in 1591, the book presents an unbroken and colourful chronicle of Hyderabad, one of contemporary India’s most important cities.  Charting the city’s fascinating march from Bhagnagar to Hyderabad to Cyberabad, this story is replete with diverse engaging, eccentric and often daring characters, some of whose lives are stranger than fiction!



Whenever and wherever I mention that I live in Hyderabad, I am subjected to a pyroclastic flow of Hyderabad’s glorious past gushing out with a sense of pride — my tone shrieks with exclamation marks when I have to say Hyderabad!! Hyderabad founded by Quli Qutb Shah with a city plan ready in 1591, incorporating many of the features of the mythical Islamic heaven, now abounds in recurrent images, phrases — and stories that are less myth more truth, than most. There is something drone-like about the cliches; the state long presided over by the world’s richest man, home to the Salar Jung Museum, the Charminar, the Golconda diamonds, and the most likely to the Kohinoor, the Orloff, the Jacob, the Hope, the Great Mughal, the Darya-i-Noor. Hyderabad is a distinct Deccani culture, the product of a very particular mixture of peoples and influences. It was based on religious tolerance, courtesy, hospitality, love of arts and a first-rate civil service which made no distinction between creeds or caste or class. Religious tolerance —that rare value of accepting different cultures readily — has been an integral part of the culture of the Deccan for good reason.  This hair-raising book, the untold Charminar’, Syeda Iman is a gleaning of many who touched the city and were moved; who know and will tell; who relish and wish to share that relish. Finally, although the Hyderabad that I reckon — the city of pearls, the city of lakes, the city of gardens has died,  Hyderabad lives on!!


The spiritual journey is a journey towards clarity, but never towards certainty. When you draw conclusions about beginnings and endings, you are a believer. When you accept that you really do not know anything, you become a seeker. To be enlightened is not a condition of certainty. It is to move from limited knowing to boundless unknowing, from gravitas to grace.

Yogic science is a realm where science turns subjective, where fact and fable, poetry and profundity, magic and logic become inextricable.

An identified intellect leaves you with a completely distorted experience of reality. The human struggle is just this: you are unwilling to shake off the bits and pieces of knowledge you have acquired because these give you some sense of security and identity. For a tiny bit of knowledge, you are giving up the cosmos!

To know the life in its entirety, one has to become one with it — not cerebrally, but experientially. Through only knowing, not knowledge. Knowledge is intellectual accumulation; it is information gathered and processed in bits and pieces. Knowing, on the other hand, is neither intellectual nor accumulative.

Being that which is not is the most auspicious thing, this is because you can find fault ‘that which is ‘. You can like it or dislike it; you can agree with it or disagree with it; but ‘that which is not’ is perfect. ‘That which is not’ is the most auspicious, because nobody can find fault with it.


One day a bull was grazing in the field  and a pheasant was picking out the ticks off the bull’s body. They are used to each other; they are sort of friends, so it’s going on.  Then the pheasant became nostalgic and said, “when I was young, I could fly and sit on the topmost branch of the big tree out there, but now I can’t even get to the first branch”.  The bull said nonchalantly, “Oh! what’s the problem? Just eat my dung, and it will give you all the nourishment that you need to go to the topmost branch”.  The pheasant said, “Really? You mean just eating your droppings will get me to the top of the tree?” “Yes, try and see!” he replied.  So the pheasant hesitantly ate some of the dung, and that very day he flew up to the first branch! Every day, he started eating more and more of the dung. In about a fortnight’s time, it reached the topmost branch, and went and sat there. The pheasant was so thrilled, having eaten this dung and being able to sit on the topmost branch. Now when the farmer, who was sitting on his balcony, saw this fat pheasant sitting on the topmost branch of the tree, he just pulled out his shotgun and shot the pheasant off the tree!

The moral of the story is: bullshit may get you to the top but it will never let you stay there…!
Source: Mystic Musings – Sadhguru!


Data rate is same as single carrier modulation. But when the coherence bandwidth is less than the bandwidth of the signal (in case of wide-band channels), single carrier modulation suffers from inter symbol interference (ISI).  Whereas in multi-carrier modulation the bandwidth is divided into sub-carriers with bandwidth less than the coherence bandwidth; it’s more like converting wide-band into narrow band channels.

Thus OFDM converts frequency selective fading channel into flat fading channel.

Since multi-carrier modulation requires many modulators/demodulators for the transmission of the data, OFDM comes with IDFT (done by IFFT) which maps the data onto the respective sub-carrier, and can be transmitted.

A ZP–OFDM system has lower transmission power and a simpler transmitter structure. Unfortunately, the ZP–OFDM scheme introduces ICI, as the orthogonality among subcarriers is destroyed when multiple
copies of the time-shifted ZP–OFDM waveform are received. To remove ICI, cyclic
prefixing (CP) transmission is preferred.

Cyclic prefix converts the linear convolution into circular convolution, thus DFT can be invoked on the received signal.

In MIMO-OFDM each transmit antenna implements OFDM and transmit.  Say, we have 4 antennas and 256*4 symbols to transmit, divide the 256 into 4 sets; and implement OFDM using the 256 sub-carriers at each antenna and transmit.

OFDM has high PAPR, which results in the non-linear region of the amplifier (in IFFT block).  Thus high PAPR makes OFDM loses its properties such as orthogonality of the carriers.

Equalization at the receiver is done to mitigate the ISI, equalizers such as ZF equalizer, MMSE, decision feedback equalizer (check Goldsmith’s book) are used.



This is the day when I met Ramachandra Guha, a historian and biographer, at IISc Bangalore.  I was completely enthralled and engrossed in reading his most acclaimed book India After Gandhi; it was first historical, non-fiction and a colossal book that I read.  Below is the autographed copy of the book by Guha.

Book autographed by Guha.
Book autographed by Guha.



I recently picked up interest in reading books, mostly non-fiction, biographies ,and some philosophical stuff.  I found the following interesting fable on quora on why reading is so important, and hence, sharing it here on my blog!

An old farmer lived on a farm in the mountains with his young grandson. Each morning Grandpa was up early sitting at the kitchen table reading his book. One day the grandson asked, “Grandpa! I try to read the book just like you but I don’t understand it, and what I do understand I forget as soon
as I close the book. What good does reading the book do?”

The grandfather quietly turned from putting coal in the stove and replied, “Take this coal basket down to the river and bring me back a basket of water.”

The boy did as he was told, but all the water leaked out before he got back to the house. The grandfather laughed and said, “You’ll have to move a little faster next time,” and sent him back to the river with the basket to try again. This time the boy ran faster, but again the basket was empty before he returned home. Out of breath, he told his grandfather that it was impossible to carry water in a basket, and he went to get a bucket instead.  The old man said, “I don’t want a bucket of water; I want a basket of water. You’re just not trying hard enough,” and he went out the door to watch the boy try
again. At this point, the boy knew it was impossible, but he wanted to show his grandfather that even if he ran as fast as he could, the water would leak out before he got back to the house.  The boy again dipped the basket into the river and ran hard, but when he reached his grandfather the basket was
again empty. Out of breath, he said, “See Grandpa, it’s  useless!”

“So you think it is useless?” the old man said, “Look at the basket.” The boy looked at the basket and for the first time realized that the basket was different. It had been transformed from a dirty old coal basket and was now clean, inside and out.

Son, that’s what happens when you read the book. You might not understand or remember everything, but when you read it, you will be changed, inside and out!



2014 Batch
2014 Batch

Batch of 2014 IIT Madras Electrical Sciences.

2014-Batch of IIT Madras, Electrical B.Tech


Electrical Batch of 2014 IIT Madras.
Batch of Electrical Sciences, 2014 IIT Madras.

Wing mates of Narmada Hostel, IIT Madras.


Wingmates of Narmada Hostel, IIT Madras.
Wingmates of Narmada Hostel, IIT Madras.

Hostel night…

Hostel night with wingmates
Hostel night with wingmates
A selfie...
A selfie…

Another selfie…







Presented my paper titled “Recent Trends in Future Proof Access Passive Networks: GPON and WDM PON” in 4th International Conference on Recent Trends in Information Technology on April 10th 2014, along with my friend Abhinov in Chennai at MIT.

It was an experience which I never had before.  Finally, savored the poster presentation at ICRTIT.