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As someone who has devoted three decades of his life to multilateral cooperation at the United Nations, Shashi Tharoor, undeniably an aficionado of global governance and foreign diplomacy.  Shahi in his riveting book ‘Pax Indica’, trenchantly notes the forces that thwart India from becoming a major power at the global table.  He peevishly writes about the impediments that India bedevils from its neighbors, which nurture and provide succor in their soil; the claims of its frontiers from the overweening China, which is one of the incipient major powers in the 21st century; and the policies with the USA which most of them are desultorily formulated.  He eloquently adds, how India has transmuted from the stereotype west has from as land of snake-charmers and begging bowls — poverty marginally leavened by exotica to a land of engineers and scientists who are now seen as a synonym with mathematics and science and IT.  Further, he adds how India can rise as a soft power by promoting its creed, culture, customs, cuisine, Bollywood, etc!  Tharoor,  proffered in this book, that reform at United Nations is salient for the well-being of the world!
The post-colonial India, which weaned on multilateral lenders has transformed itself to where no power on earth can presume to dictate to India on any international issue in this 21st century!

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As someone who has devoted three decades of his life to multilateral cooperation at the United Nations, Shashi Tharoor, undeniably an aficionado of global governance and foreign diplomacy.  Shahi in his riveting book ‘Pax Indica’, trenchantly notes the forces that thwart India from becoming a major power at the global table.  He peevishly writes about the impediments that India bedevils from its neighbors, which nurture and provide succor in their soil; the claims of its frontiers from the overweening China, which is one of the incipient major powers in the 21st century; and the policies with the USA which most of them are desultorily formulated.  He eloquently adds, how India has transmuted from the stereotype west has from as land of snake-charmers and begging bowls — poverty marginally leavened by exotica to a land of engineers and scientists who are now seen as a synonym with mathematics and science and IT.  Further, he adds how India can rise as a soft power by promoting its creed, culture, customs, cuisine, Bollywood, etc!  Tharoor,  proffered in this book, that reform at United Nations is salient for the well-being of the world!
The post-colonial India, which weaned on multilateral lenders has transformed itself to where no power on earth can presume to dictate to India on any international issue in this 21st century!

91tu6fhpr6lThe speech turned into a book, Shashi Tharoor in ‘An Era of Darkness: The British Empire in India’, makes a bold attempt to strike back at the British colonialism in India. While this book aroused intense emotions as I read this book, when I am myself an expatriate in England, Tharoor has done a great deal of effort in his analysis of the iniquitous of the imperialism and the rapaciousness of the Briton’s forebears. This book lays bare the colonialism as a tale of slavery, plunder, corruption, land-grabbing, famines, exploitation, indentured labor, impoverishment, massacres, genocide and forced resettlement!

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One day a bull was grazing in the field  and a pheasant was picking out the ticks off the bull’s body. They are used to each other; they are sort of friends, so it’s going on.  Then the pheasant became nostalgic and said, “when I was young, I could fly and sit on the topmost branch of the big tree out there, but now I can’t even get to the first branch”.  The bull said nonchalantly, “Oh! what’s the problem? Just eat my dung, and it will give you all the nourishment that you need to go to the topmost branch”.  The pheasant said, “Really? You mean just eating your droppings will get me to the top of the tree?” “Yes, try and see!” he replied.  So the pheasant hesitantly ate some of the dung, and that very day he flew up to the first branch! Every day, he started eating more and more of the dung. In about a fortnight’s time, it reached the topmost branch, and went and sat there. The pheasant was so thrilled, having eaten this dung and being able to sit on the topmost branch. Now when the farmer, who was sitting on his balcony, saw this fat pheasant sitting on the topmost branch of the tree, he just pulled out his shotgun and shot the pheasant off the tree!

The moral of the story is: bullshit may get you to the top but it will never let you stay there…!
Source: Mystic Musings – Sadhguru!

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Data rate is same as single carrier modulation. But when the coherence bandwidth is less than the bandwidth of the signal (in case of wide-band channels), single carrier modulation suffers from inter symbol interference (ISI).  Whereas in multi-carrier modulation the bandwidth is divided into sub-carriers with bandwidth less than the coherence bandwidth; it’s more like converting wide-band into narrow band channels.

Thus OFDM converts frequency selective fading channel into flat fading channel.

Since multi-carrier modulation requires many modulators/demodulators for the transmission of the data, OFDM comes with IDFT (done by IFFT) which maps the data onto the respective sub-carrier, and can be transmitted.

A ZP–OFDM system has lower transmission power and a simpler transmitter structure. Unfortunately, the ZP–OFDM scheme introduces ICI, as the orthogonality among subcarriers is destroyed when multiple
copies of the time-shifted ZP–OFDM waveform are received. To remove ICI, cyclic
prefixing (CP) transmission is preferred.

Cyclic prefix converts the linear convolution into circular convolution, thus DFT can be invoked on the received signal.

In MIMO-OFDM each transmit antenna implements OFDM and transmit.  Say, we have 4 antennas and 256*4 symbols to transmit, divide the 256 into 4 sets; and implement OFDM using the 256 sub-carriers at each antenna and transmit.

OFDM has high PAPR, which results in the non-linear region of the amplifier (in IFFT block).  Thus high PAPR makes OFDM loses its properties such as orthogonality of the carriers.

Equalization at the receiver is done to mitigate the ISI, equalizers such as ZF equalizer, MMSE, decision feedback equalizer (check Goldsmith’s book) are used.

[draft]

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This is the day when I met Ramachandra Guha, a historian and biographer, at IISc Bangalore.  I was completely enthralled and engrossed in reading his most acclaimed book India After Gandhi; it was first historical, non-fiction and a colossal book that I read.  Below is the autographed copy of the book by Guha.

Book autographed by Guha.
Book autographed by Guha.

 

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I recently picked up interest in reading books, mostly non-fiction, biographies ,and some philosophical stuff.  I found the following interesting fable on quora on why reading is so important, and hence, sharing it here on my blog!

An old farmer lived on a farm in the mountains with his young grandson. Each morning Grandpa was up early sitting at the kitchen table reading his book. One day the grandson asked, “Grandpa! I try to read the book just like you but I don’t understand it, and what I do understand I forget as soon
as I close the book. What good does reading the book do?”

The grandfather quietly turned from putting coal in the stove and replied, “Take this coal basket down to the river and bring me back a basket of water.”

The boy did as he was told, but all the water leaked out before he got back to the house. The grandfather laughed and said, “You’ll have to move a little faster next time,” and sent him back to the river with the basket to try again. This time the boy ran faster, but again the basket was empty before he returned home. Out of breath, he told his grandfather that it was impossible to carry water in a basket, and he went to get a bucket instead.  The old man said, “I don’t want a bucket of water; I want a basket of water. You’re just not trying hard enough,” and he went out the door to watch the boy try
again. At this point, the boy knew it was impossible, but he wanted to show his grandfather that even if he ran as fast as he could, the water would leak out before he got back to the house.  The boy again dipped the basket into the river and ran hard, but when he reached his grandfather the basket was
again empty. Out of breath, he said, “See Grandpa, it’s  useless!”

“So you think it is useless?” the old man said, “Look at the basket.” The boy looked at the basket and for the first time realized that the basket was different. It had been transformed from a dirty old coal basket and was now clean, inside and out.

Son, that’s what happens when you read the book. You might not understand or remember everything, but when you read it, you will be changed, inside and out!

demotivation.us_Books-That-is-exactly-how-they-work_130580980657

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2014 Batch
2014 Batch

Batch of 2014 IIT Madras Electrical Sciences.

Btech
2014-Batch of IIT Madras, Electrical B.Tech

 

Electrical Batch of 2014 IIT Madras.
Batch of Electrical Sciences, 2014 IIT Madras.

Wing mates of Narmada Hostel, IIT Madras.

 

Wingmates of Narmada Hostel, IIT Madras.
Wingmates of Narmada Hostel, IIT Madras.

Hostel night…

Hostel night with wingmates
Hostel night with wingmates
A selfie...
A selfie…

Another selfie…

20140416_151418

Finally,

Myself...
Myself…

 

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Presented my paper titled “Recent Trends in Future Proof Access Passive Networks: GPON and WDM PON” in 4th International Conference on Recent Trends in Information Technology on April 10th 2014, along with my friend Abhinov in Chennai at MIT.

It was an experience which I never had before.  Finally, savored the poster presentation at ICRTIT.

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There are whopping number of papers (technical papers) getting published each day.  Gazillion conferences each day.  I really wonder how people get their work published.  Is it not so ridiculous publishing material which lacks quality and genuinity.  Let’s forget the quality for the time being..how about publishing a material which is a replica or plagiarized from other papers (of course they too are meagre)….?

More often than not, I see people going bananas for getting the paper published.  I do not really understand this, it is astounding to see the professors doing the same…what do they aim at while publishing? fame? reputation of the institute?…?

There are people who see  only the number of publications…and get things done…don’t they know how things work?

There are people who negotiates that more number of publications implies good research..and there are people who argues more number of Ph.D implies high quality research…is it not so ridiculous…This is highly pathetic…anyway, all I could do is to just wear a smile….

But, there are people who really do good quality work and get their work published in a reputed journals….they don’t unless there is a significant amount of work…..

Reputed journals,  there are journals where one can get their work published if the corresponding or co-author is a reputed/elevated person, no matter what the recent publishing work it is….

or if one does not belong to anyone of the aforementioned authors…still you can get your work published by volunteering the organization in the form of money.  I really wonder why those journals ask for volunteering (money of course) while submission of the manuscript but why not after getting it accepted/rejected? what does this imply….?

Anyway, so why am I writing all this and why today….? well, because today, my paper has been accepted for a conference xyz…and will be published in xxxxxx.  🙂

Satya.